Aztec Empire

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Das Aztekenreich oder der Dreibund war ein Bündnis von drei Nahua altenpetl Stadtstaaten: Mexiko-Tenochtitlan, Texcoco und Tlacopan. The Aztec Empire: vinoserv.be: Solis, Felipe: Fremdsprachige Bücher. The Aztec Empire | Felipe Solis | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. vinoserv.be | Übersetzungen für 'Aztec empire' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für Aztec empire im Online-Wörterbuch vinoserv.be (Deutschwörterbuch).

Aztec Empire

Datei:Aztec Empire vinoserv.be Sprache; Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Datei; Dateiversionen; Dateiverwendung; Globale Dateiverwendung; Metadaten. The Aztec Empire | Felipe Solis | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Das Aztekenreich oder der Dreibund war ein Bündnis von drei Nahua altenpetl Stadtstaaten: Mexiko-Tenochtitlan, Texcoco und Tlacopan. The Aztec Empire had a fully developed system of governance other than laws and social Aztec Empire. The temple was enlarged in several stages, and most of the Aztec rulers made a point of adding a further stage, each with a new dedication and inauguration. Beste Spielothek in Jackstede finden ; Patricia A. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In the early colonial period some indigenous governors became quite rich and influential and were able to maintain positions of power comparable to that of Spanish encomenderos. Despite the alliance between these three city-states, the city of Unternehmen In Niedersachsen soon established itself as the dominant military power with the other two city-states assuming the subsidiary roles. Strictly Necessary Cookies Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings.

The Aztec calendar was the one common to much of Mesoamerica, and it comprised a solar year of days and a sacred year of days; the two yearly cycles running in parallel produced a larger cycle of 52 years.

The Aztec empire was still expanding, and its society still evolving, when its progress was halted in by the appearance of Spanish explorers.

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Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. They moved to an island in Lake Texcoco, where an eagle nested upon a cactus eating a snake the symbol in the middle of the modern Mexican flag.

They saw this as a prophesy and founded Tenochtitlan on this island on 13 March The Mexican flag features an emblem of an Eagle eating a snake on a cactus — the Aztec prophesy.

From , the Aztecs had been militarily supporting the nearby state of Tepanec and benefited from the expansion of that empire.

In , the Tepanec ruler died and his son Maxlatzin inherited the throne. He sought to reduce Aztec power, but was crushed by the former ally.

Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing a commoner advancing through the ranks by taking captives in war. Each attire can be achieved by taking a certain number of captives.

While the Aztec did fight pitched battles, from the mids fighting became something rather more like a blood sport, with ornately dressed nobles attempting to make their enemies submit so they could be captured and then sacrificed.

The ruins of Teotihuacan north of Mexico City. The Aztecs believed its giant structures to be the work of gods. In this photo, the huge Pyramid of the Sun is shown next to the 3km long Avenue of the Dead.

Photo by the author. Aztec gods were divided into groups, such as for the weather, agriculture and warfare. Tlaloc was a common feature of pots because they would be used to catch rain water.

Captives would be sacrificed to please the gods, which was common throughout Mesoamerican religion. While the Aztecs certainly increased the amount of sacrifice that occurred in the region, the true extent of how much it occurred is unclear.

Spanish sources are almost certainly exaggerated. Aztec human sacrifice Human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano. In terms of military technology, the peoples of the Mexico region were a long way from the Europeans at the time — they had not developed either bronze or iron for widespread battle use and most metalwork was for jewellery or small ornaments.

Most Aztec weaponry was based on a volcanic glass called obsidian, which was sharp and strong enough to fashion primitive weapons.

Militarily they were only as advanced as European peoples in the Neolithic Stone Age period. There were no horses, cows or sheep native to the region.

The Triple Alliance was formed from the victorious factions of a civil war fought between the city of Azcapotzalco and its former tributary provinces.

The alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded rapidly after its formation. At its height, the alliance controlled most of central Mexico as well as some more distant territories within Mesoamerica , such as the Xoconochco province , an Aztec exclave near the present-day Guatemalan border.

Aztec rule has been described by scholars as " hegemonic " or "indirect". In return, the imperial authority offered protection and political stability, and facilitated an integrated economic network of diverse lands and peoples who had significant local autonomy.

The state religion of the empire was polytheistic , worshiping a diverse pantheon that included dozens of deities. Many had officially recognized cults large enough so that the deity was represented in the central temple precinct of the capital Tenochtitlan.

The imperial cult, specifically, was that of Huitzilopochtli , the distinctive warlike patron god of the Mexica. Peoples in conquered provinces were allowed to retain and freely continue their own religious traditions, so long as they added the imperial god Huitzilopochtli to their local pantheons.

The word " Aztec " in modern usage would not have been used by the people themselves. It has variously been used to refer to the Triple Alliance empire, the Nahuatl -speaking people of central Mexico prior to the Spanish conquest, or specifically the Mexica ethnicity of the Nahuatl-speaking peoples.

For the broader use of the term, see the article on Aztec civilization. Nahua peoples descended from Chichimec peoples who migrated to central Mexico from the north in the early 13th century.

Early migrants settled the Basin of Mexico and surrounding lands by establishing a series of independent city-states.

Most of the existing settlements had been established by other indigenous peoples before the Mexica migration. These early city-states fought various small-scale wars with each other, but due to shifting alliances, no individual city gained dominance.

They entered the Basin of Mexico around the year , and by then most of the good agricultural land had already been claimed.

The Mexica served as mercenaries for Culhuacan. After the Mexica served Culhuacan in battle, the ruler appointed one of his daughters to rule over the Mexica.

According to mythological native accounts, the Mexica instead sacrificed her by flaying her skin, on the command of their god Xipe Totec.

The Mexica moved to an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco , where an eagle nested on a nopal cactus. The Mexica rose to prominence as fierce warriors and were able to establish themselves as a military power.

The importance of warriors and the integral nature of warfare in Mexica political and religious life helped propel them to emerge as the dominant military power prior to the arrival of the Spanish in The new Mexica city-state allied with the city of Azcapotzalco and paid tribute to its ruler, Tezozomoc.

Until this point, the Mexica ruler was not recognized as a legitimate king. Mexica leaders successfully petitioned one of the kings of Culhuacan to provide a daughter to marry into the Mexica line.

Their son, Acamapichtli , was enthroned as the first tlatoani of Tenochtitlan in the year While the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco expanded their rule with help from the Mexica, the Acolhua city of Texcoco grew in power in the eastern portion of the lake basin.

Eventually, war erupted between the two states, and the Mexica played a vital role in the conquest of Texcoco.

By then, Tenochtitlan had grown into a major city and was rewarded for its loyalty to the Tepanecs by receiving Texcoco as a tributary province.

In , the Tepanec king Tezozomoc died, [18] [19] [20] and the resulting succession crisis precipitated a civil war between potential successors.

But his son, Maxtla , soon usurped the throne and turned against factions that opposed him, including the Mexica ruler Chimalpopoca. The latter died shortly thereafter, possibly assassinated by Maxtla.

The new Mexica ruler Itzcoatl continued to defy Maxtla; he blockaded Tenochtitlan and demanded increased tribute payments. Nezahualcoyotl recruited military help from the king of Huexotzinco, and the Mexica gained the support of a dissident Tepanec city, Tlacopan.

In , Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan, and Huexotzinco went to war against Azcapotzalco, emerging victorious in After the war, Huexotzinco withdrew, and in , [1] the three remaining cities formed a treaty known today as the Triple Alliance.

Land acquired from these conquests was to be held by the three cities together. Tribute was to be divided so that two-fifths each went to Tenochtitlan and Texcoco, and one-fifth went to Tlacopan.

Each of the three kings of the alliance in turn assumed the title "huetlatoani" "Elder Speaker", often translated as "Emperor". In this role, each temporarily held a de jure position above the rulers of other city-states "tlatoani".

In the next years, the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan came to dominate the Valley of Mexico and extend its power to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific.

Tenochtitlan gradually became the dominant power in the alliance. Two of the primary architects of this alliance were the half-brothers Tlacaelel and Moctezuma , nephews of Itzcoatl.

Moctezuma eventually succeeded Itzcoatl as the Mexica huetlatoani in Tlacaelel occupied the newly created title of " Cihuacoatl ", equivalent to something between "Prime Minister" and "Viceroy".

Shortly after the formation of the Triple Alliance, Itzcoatl and Tlacopan instigated sweeping reforms on the Aztec state and religion. It has been alleged that Tlacaelel ordered the burning of some or most of the extant Aztec books, claiming that they contained lies and that it was "not wise that all the people should know the paintings".

After Moctezuma I succeeded Itzcoatl as the Mexica emperor, more reforms were instigated to maintain control over conquered cities.

A new imperial tribute system established Mexica tribute collectors that taxed the population directly, bypassing the authority of local dynasties.

Nezahualcoyotl also instituted a policy in the Acolhua lands of granting subject kings tributary holdings in lands far from their capitals.

Some rebellious kings were replaced by calpixqueh , or appointed governors rather than dynastic rulers. Moctezuma issued new laws that further separated nobles from commoners and instituted the death penalty for adultery and other offenses.

Moctezuma also created a new title called "quauhpilli" that could be conferred on commoners. In some rare cases, commoners that received this title married into royal families and became kings.

One component of this reform was the creation of an institution of regulated warfare called the Flower Wars. Mesoamerican warfare overall is characterized by a strong preference for capturing live prisoners as opposed to slaughtering the enemy on the battlefield, which was considered sloppy and gratuitous.

The Flower Wars are a potent manifestation of this approach to warfare. These highly ritualized wars ensured a steady, healthy supply of experienced Aztec warriors as well as a steady, healthy supply of captured enemy warriors for sacrifice to the gods.

Flower wars were pre-arranged by officials on both sides and conducted specifically for the purpose of each polity collecting prisoners for sacrifice.

After the defeat of the Tepanecs, Itzcoatl and Nezahualcoyotl rapidly consolidated power in the Basin of Mexico and began to expand beyond its borders.

The first targets for imperial expansion were Coyoacan in the Basin of Mexico and Cuauhnahuac and Huaxtepec in the modern Mexican state of Morelos.

On the death of Itzcoatl, Moctezuma I was enthroned as the new Mexica emperor. The expansion of the empire was briefly halted by a major four-year drought that hit the Basin of Mexico in , and several cities in Morelos had to be re-conquered after the drought subsided.

In , Moctezuma I died and was succeeded by his son, Axayacatl. Most of Axayacatl's thirteen-year-reign was spent consolidating the territory acquired under his predecessor.

Motecuzoma and Nezahualcoyotl had expanded rapidly and many provinces rebelled. In , Nezahualcoyotl died and his son Nezahualpilli was enthroned as the new huetlatoani of Texcoco.

Tizoc's reign was notoriously brief. He proved to be ineffectual and did not significantly expand the empire. Apparently due to his incompetence, Tizoc was likely assassinated by his own nobles five years into his rule.

Tizoc was succeeded by his brother Ahuitzotl in Like his predecessors, the first part of Ahuitzotl's reign was spent suppressing rebellions that were commonplace due to the indirect nature of Aztec rule.

By the reign of Ahuitzotl, the Mexica were the largest and most powerful faction in the Aztec Triple Alliance. Ahuitzotl was succeeded by his nephew Moctezuzoma II in Moctezuma II spent most of his reign consolidating power in lands conquered by his predecessors.

Moctezuma II instituted more imperial reforms. Moctezuma II used his reign to attempt to consolidate power more closely with the Mexica Emperor.

His reform efforts were cut short by the Spanish Conquest in An important article, "Rethinking Malinche" by Frances Karttunen examines her role in the conquest and beyond.

Nearby, he founded the town of Veracruz where he met with ambassadors from the reigning Mexica emperor, Motecuzoma II.

The Spanish-led Totonac army crossed into Tlaxcala to seek the latter's alliance against the Aztecs. However, the Tlaxcalan general Xicotencatl the Younger believed them to be hostile, and attacked.

He then took Motecuzoma up to the roof of the palace to ask his subjects to stand down.

Hernan Cortes and the Fall of the Aztec Empire (Jr. Graphic Biographies) von Dan Abnett Taschenbuch bei vinoserv.be bestellen. Datei:Aztec Empire vinoserv.be Sprache; Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Datei; Dateiversionen; Dateiverwendung; Globale Dateiverwendung; Metadaten. Request PDF | On Nov 1, , David Carrasco published 7. The fall of the Aztec empire | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. Bulgarian Empire. Axumite Empire. Im Spielverlauf braucht die eigene Siedlung in Aztec Empire mehr Annehmlichkeiten, so wie beispielsweise eine kleine Apotheke. Celestial Empire. Suchzeit: 0. Fans der Klassiker von Impressions Games dürften angenehm überrascht sein, wie gut sich Aztec Empire bereits in dieser Beste Spielothek in Goumoens-la-Ville finden Version präsentiert. Aztec Empires bietet ein komplexes Wirtschaftssystem Beste Spielothek in Kielseng finden unterschiedlichen Bürgerleveln, die unterschiedliche Güter und Dienstleistungen verlangen.

The Aztec empire was still expanding, and its society still evolving, when its progress was halted in by the appearance of Spanish explorers.

Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

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The Aztec s are also known as Mexica or Tenochca. A major characteristic of the Postclassic, in contrast to the Classic, is the abundant historical documentation.

The Aztec record is particularly rich, and much of it is undoubtedly genuine, although there is always the possibility that records were rewritten or tampered with for political….

This description is based primarily on written documents from the 16th century but also includes some archaeological data. The literature, both published and unpublished, of the 16th century is enormous and takes in all aspects of Aztec culture.

Much of it covers the period…. History at your fingertips. After his victory, Cortes razed Tenochtitla and built Mexico City on its ruins; it quickly became the premier European center in the New World.

Start your free trial today. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.

Teotihuacan is an ancient Mesoamerican city located 30 miles 50 km northeast of modern-day Mexico City. The Maya Empire, centered in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala, reached the peak of its power and influence around the sixth century A.

The Maya excelled at agriculture, pottery, hieroglyph writing, calendar-making and mathematics, and left behind an astonishing The history of chocolate can be traced to the ancient Mayans, and even earlier to the ancient Olmecs of southern Mexico.

The word chocolate may conjure up images of sweet candy bars and luscious truffles, but the chocolate of today is little like the chocolate of the past.

The ancient Maya, a diverse group of indigenous people who lived in parts of present-day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, had one of the most sophisticated and complex civilizations in the Western Hemisphere.

Between about and A. Tikal is a complex of Mayan ruins deep in the rainforests of northern Guatemala. Historians believe the more than 3, structures on the site are the remains of a Mayan city called Yax Mutal, which was the capital of one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient empire.

New discoveries are still being unearthed in the area, providing even more insight into the culture and Recent excavations for a new subway line in Mexico City have turned up the year-old skeletons of roughly 50 Aztec children and 10 adults, as well as numerous artifacts dating back as far as B.

Aztec priests, using razor-sharp obsidian blades, sliced open the chests of sacrificial victims and offered their Today, those of us who are unlucky enough to get salmonella or technically salmonellosis will probably get it from eating undercooked meat, poultry or eggs.

A nasty bug, This Day In History. Early Aztec History. Aztec Aqueducts. Aztec Encounter. Aztec Ingenuity. Teotihuacan Teotihuacan is an ancient Mesoamerican city located 30 miles 50 km northeast of modern-day Mexico City.

Maya The Maya Empire, centered in the tropical lowlands of what is now Guatemala, reached the peak of its power and influence around the sixth century A.

Motecuzoma II Xocoyotzin Very common is "black on orange" ware which is orange Weg Brasilien decorated with painted designs in black. The city established by the Aztecs, Tenochtitlan, grew to become the capital of their empire. Typical vessels for everyday use were clay griddles for cooking comallibowls and plates for eating caxitlpots for cooking Beste Spielothek in Kersdorf findenmolcajetes or mortar-type vessels with slashed bases for grinding chilli molcaxitland different kinds Allein Auf Englisch braziers, tripod dishes and biconical goblets. Militarily they were only as advanced as European peoples in the Neolithic Stone Age period.

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